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By Gabriel Reynolds

In 385 AH/AD 995 the Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar, popular for his Mu'tazili theological writings, wrote the affirmation of the Proofs of Prophecy, a piece that features a inventive polemic opposed to Christianity. 'Abd al-Jabbar reinterprets the Bible, Church historical past (especially the lives of Paul and Constantine) and Christian perform to argue that Christians replaced the Islamic faith of Jesus. the current paintings starts with an exam of the debatable idea that this polemic used to be borrowed from an unknown Judaeo-Christian staff. the writer argues that 'Abd al-Jabbar's polemic is best understood as a reaction to his specific milieu and the on-going inter-religious debates of the medieval Islamic global. by means of analyzing the lifestyles and considered 'Abd al-Jabbar, besides the Islamic, Christian and Jewish antecedants to his polemic, the writer uncovers the intimate courting among sectarian controversy and the advance of an Islamic doctrine on Christianity.

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H. Becker, who comments: “Daß die ganze Methode des kalàm aus dem Christentum stammt, ist bekannt. H. Becker “Christliche Polemik und islamische Dogmenbildung,” Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 26 (1911), 175–95 (Reprinted in his Islamstudien [Leipzig: G. Olms, 1924], 1:432–449, quotation on 1:445. ). S. Seale, Muslim Theology: a Study of Origins with Reference to the Church Fathers (London: Luzac, 1964). 27 Moses Maimonides, The Guide of the Perplexed, trans. S. Pines (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963), 177.

300/310 or 912/922) and Dhahabì (d. 748/1348), portray Îiràr as a loyal Mu'tazilì. See van Ess “Îiràr b. 'Amr,” 225 and Une Lecture à rebours de l’histoire du mu'tazilisme, 97. Ibn al-Ràwandì, himself hardly a model of orthodoxy, considers Îiràr a Mu'tazilì, as do Ibn al-Nadìm (p. e. Ja'far b. Óarb, see above). See (Pseudo-)Nàshi" al-Akbar, K. Ußùl al-ni˙al, in J. van Ess, Frühe mu'tazilitische Häresiographie, 52. These two relegate him to heterodox status, for not holding the five canonical principles of the Mu'tazila: 1.

9 Many works have been written on the Mu'tazila, a group that has been studied since the beginning of western scholarship on Islam,10 and I intend here neither to adumbrate the results of this scholarship nor to challenge it. 11 For Islamic kalàm involves not only theMajmù' is also not 'Abd al-Jabbàr’s work, although the first volume of the edition is credited to him. It is the work of Abù Mu˙ammad al-Óasan b. Mattawayh (d. 469/ 1076), a disciple of 'Abd al-Jabbàr who likewise records much of his teacher’s thought.

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