By Samuel Hugh McGrady
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G. corn and cattle. (b) Trade monopolized by foreigners. (c) Taxation, especially in Castile and Naples. 48 AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE (iv) Demoralizing Influence of Spanish Empire, owing to influx of wealth into Spain. Lands untilled; rush to the Spanish Main drainedlSpain of men. (v) False Imperial Policy involved Spain in endless wars. g. Brabant, Flanders, Guelders, Holland , Zealand, Hainault, and the bishopric of Utrecht) were brought under the control of the Dukes of Burgundy. The marriage of his son Maximilian to Mary of Burgundy, heiress of Charles the Bold (1477), was a brilliant success for the Emperor Frederick III.
After the judicial murder of Oldenbarneveldt, "Minister of All Affairs" (1585-1619), who played a part in the War of Independence second only to that of William the Silent, the Stadtholder, Maurice of Nassau, became sovereign in all but name. At the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) the United Provinces reached the height of their prosperity, not only in commerce, but in art, science, and literature: Grotius 52 AGE OF THE RENAISSANCE (1583-1645) issued his work on international law, De Jure Belli et Pacis (1625); Rembrandt (1606-1669) is the foremost representative of the Dutch School of painting; Jaco~ Cats (1577-1660) is the most popular Dutch poet; Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) improved the microscope; the philosopher Spinoza (1632-1677) wrote his Ethica; while Holland - free in thought and speech beyond all other continental states - became the home of Descartes.
The actual massacre was not long and carefully prepared. 'Fhere is no doubt, however, that the scheme had been forming in Catherine's mind at least as early as the conference with Alva at Bayonne (1565). Afterwards, to satisfy the king, she invented the story of a Protestant plot. A result of the massacre was the formation of the party of the Politiques, who advocated toleration and the supremacy of the State over the Church. There broke out: (iii) THE FOURTH-SEVENTH CIVIL WARS (1572-1580) These struggles were marked by the formation of the League (1576), which reached tht; height of its power in 1585 - an alliance of the Catholic aristocracy and the Parisian democracy, aided by Philip II, which aimed at the annihilation of the reformed party, and, as time went on, the elevation of the Guises to the throne.