By John Burnham
Know-how calls for uniformity from humans who come across it. humans encountering know-how, even though, fluctuate from each other. Thinkers within the early 20th century, looking at the bleak effects of interactions among people and machines—death via autos or dismemberment through manufacturing facility equipment, for example—developed the belief of coincidence proneness: the tendency of a specific individual to have extra injuries than most folk. In tracing this idea from its delivery to its disappearance on the finish of the 20th century, twist of fate companies bargains a different heritage of expertise concentrated now not on strategies yet on their unintentional consequences.Here, John C. Burnham exhibits that because the laptop period advanced, the actual and financial influence of injuries coevolved with the increase of the coverage and tendencies in twentieth-century psychology. After international warfare I, psychologists decided that a few individuals are extra coincidence providers than others. This designation signaled a shift in social procedure towards minimizing injuries by means of diverting specific humans clear of risky environments. by way of the Nineteen Sixties and Seventies, although, the assumption of coincidence proneness steadily declined, and engineers built new applied sciences to guard everyone, thereby introducing a hidden, yet radical, egalitarianism. mendacity on the intersection of the historical past of know-how, the historical past of medication and psychology, and environmental background, twist of fate services is an bold highbrow research of the delivery, progress, and decline of an idea that may curiosity someone who needs to appreciate how Western societies have grappled with the human expenditures of recent existence. (20091217)
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Extra resources for Accident Prone: A History of Technology, Psychology, and Misfits of the Machine Age
The statistics for criminal convictions, Marbe pointed out, showed the same pattern as for accidents: the more convictions, the more chance of recidivism. 17 By shifting his terminology away from “disposition,” Marbe was not just re-naming accident proneness. He was signaling his perception that inclination to accident did not belong in the realm of medicine. Unfallneigung therefore was a phenomenon that belonged in psychology, not medicine—and, as will be noted below, Marbe’s British counterparts made a similar transition at the same time, 1925–1926.
Lahy of France, who later wrote a book that dominated what there was of Continentals’ writings on the subject of accident proneness, and Morris Viteles, an American whose importance in publicizing the idea among psychologists is also taken up below. 38 German Origins a va r ie t y of r e ac t ions to m a r be’s wor k As early as 1928 in Germany, however, another type of reaction appeared: criticism of Marbe’s theory. The basis of the opposition was that the identity of an accident repeater was not valid when applied to individuals, and this theme continued in many discussions of accident proneness for all of the decades afterward.
Before Accident Proneness figure 1:5. Educational poster, Germany, 1927: “Protect yourself! ” Source: Kurt Seesemann, “Psychotechnical Studies on Industrial Safety Propaganda,” Industrial Safety Survey, 3 (1927), 72. ” 31 By 1920, then, safety crusaders were trying to separate people into two groups: the careful and the careless. Social pressure to coerce people to enforce carefulness and to be careful themselves was effective in many parts of society (ﬁgure 1:5). Statistics showed some accident-free workplaces.