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By Jürgen Habermas

El concepto de "presuposición idealizante" ocupa un lugar destacado en los angeles construcción de los angeles "teoría de l. a. acción comunicativa". En este ensayo, que constituye una importante aportación a su teoría, Habermas explica y desarrolla este concepto, reinterpretándolo, a l. a. luz de su análisis pragmático-formal, como una versión de las "ideas" kantianas una vez liberadas de su sentido transcendental. El texto ofrece una explicación genealógica de los vínculos que unen el planteamiento kantiano con cuatro presuposiciones pragmáticas inevitables en l. a. acción comunicativa: un mundo objetivo común, los angeles responsabilidad de los sujetos racionales, los angeles validez incondicional de las pretensiones de verdad y de corrección normativa, y l. a. necesaria dependencia de justificación discursiva. Habermas destaca que l. a. "inevitabilidad" de estas presuposiciones en los angeles acción comunicativa debe entenderse más en el sentido de Wittgenstein que en el de Kant, es decir, no en el sentido trascendental de las condiciones universales y necesarias de l. a. experiencia posible, sino en el sentido gramatical de un sistema de lenguaje y un mundo de l. a. vida en el que nos hemos socializado y que, en cualquier caso, "para nosotros" es insuperable. A los angeles luz de esos nexos genealógicos se hacen patentes los puntos cruciales en los que l. a. filosofía analítica ha rechazado l. a. herencia de las "ideas" de los angeles razón pura de Kant. Pero, a su vez, mediante un análisis que examina l. a. crítica de Frege al psicologismo, el principio de caridad interpretativa de Davidson, los angeles recepción crítica de Wittgenstein por parte de Dummett, y los angeles concepción del entendimiento como un intercambio discursivo de razones que propone Brandom, Habermas muestra que los angeles tradición analítica acaba llegando a unas descripciones normativas de los angeles práctica lingüística muy similares a las de su pragmática formal, de raíces confesadamente kantianas.

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In particular, there will be a tendency, on both approaches towards specialization—and all that implies. In a society of such technological sophistication as our own—one which, moreover, has witnessed an extraordinary mushrooming of knowledge—it is inevitable that training for economic roles, as well as initiation into disciplined systems of knowledge, must impose specialization. True, the emphasis may be upon a number of roles and upon a number of disciplines: but a group of specialisms does not add up to that holistic education, that ‘unity in variety’, so admired by Goethe.

As we shall see in the following chapters, Nietzsche’s main charge against both approaches—emerging already in the remarks of the last paragraph—returns us to the theme of authenticity discussed in the first chapter: for the charge is that neither approach can constitute ‘true education’, since neither can foster—indeed, each can only hinder— the authentic life. 3 Nature and technicism Training ‘breadwinners’ and producing ‘scholars’ may not be polar opposites, for they have aims and enemies in common.

It is not simply that technicist investigation of nature is conducted with the devices of calculation and measurement, but that the questions raised are to be settled by calculative, means-end reasoning. They take the form, broadly, of asking how nature’s resources are to be most efficiently utilized to achieve certain results, especially the overarching one of increased material wealth. The forest becomes something to measure: it consists of x units of material, the cost of whose utilization will be y, yielding z by way of benefit.

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