By Raji M. Rammuny
Read or Download Advanced Standard Arabic through Authentic Texts and Audiovisual Materials: Part One, Textual Materials PDF
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Extra info for Advanced Standard Arabic through Authentic Texts and Audiovisual Materials: Part One, Textual Materials
Racial formation occurs through psychological and social processes. Psychologically, it occurs when boundaries between people are defined on the basis of inherited traits. The boundaries are established in social cognition through learning, observation, and experience and then either blurred or brightened through a framing process in which actors endeavor to attach positive or negative attributes to incumbents of the resulting social categories (Kahneman and Tversky 2000). Socially, racial formation occurs through processes of boundary reification, in which people undertake actions and create social structures to inhibit interaction between people in different social categories (Lamont and Molnar 2002).
In 2010, 61 percent of Latinos agreed that discrimination against them was a “major problem,” up from 47 percent in 2002 (Lopez, Morin, and Taylor 2010). Housing audits done by the federal government showed that whereas, in 1989, Hispanics were 19 percent less likely than blacks to experience adverse treatment in rental markets, in 2000, they were 8 percent more likely to suffer discrimination. Likewise, in home sales markets, blacks were twice as likely as Hispanics to experience discrimination in 1989, whereas, in 2000, Hispanics were 18 percent more likely than blacks to experience discrimination (Turner et al.
Citizens (Jaffe, Cullen, and Boswell 1980). The Gadsden Purchase of 1853 added 250,000 square miles of what is now southern Arizona and New Mexico, along with some unknown number of Mexicans to the population. The bulk of these new citizens lived in New Mexico and Texas, and the latter, being a slave state, quickly relegated Mexicans to a racialized status—not enslaved like African Americans, but certainly not accorded the rights and privileges of white Europeans (Gutierrez 1995). indd 24 19-10-2013 16:17:25 THE RACIALIZATION OF LATINOS IN THE UNITED STATES 25 De Leon 1999).
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