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By Paul Williams

Brings jointly Paul Williams' formerly released papers at the Indian and Tibetan interpretations of chosen verses from the 8th and 9th chapters of the Bodhicaryavatara.

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By way of further clarification, therefore, let us look at verse 3 5 . BODHICARyAVATARA 9 : 3 5 ( =TIB. 34) yada na bhavo nabhavo matel:! ti�thate pural:! I tadanyagatyabhavena niralamba prasamyati II gang tse dngos dang dngos med dag I blo yi mdun na mi gnas pa I de tse mam pa gzhan med pas I dmigs pa med par rab tu zhi II When entity and non-entity do not stand before the mind I Then because there exists no other possibil ity, without intentional object it is completely calmed II Prajfiakaramati comments that the mind is completely calmed because all diversifying constructions are calmed ( buddhi� prasamyati upasamyati I sarvavikalpopasamat) .

II The opponent is putting forward an argument, indicated in the Sanskrit by the conclusion marker ato, 'therefore' . Possibly our earliest Tibetan commentary, the Byang chub sems pa'i spyod pa la 'jug pa'i 'grel pa by the second Sa skya hierarch bSod nams rtse mo ( 1 142- 82), brings out the opponent's argument here very clearly and felicitously. Someone might argue that the grounds (rgyu mtshan) by which something is to be protected against is the fact that it causes harm to me. The grounds are not simply that it is not desired by 30 On Altruism and Rebirth another.

We know who we are by all the social and linguistic processes by which people develop ideas about themselves and each other. As we grow throughout our lives we have an ever changing concept of who we are [The self] is a process in flux and dependent upon a functioning brain There is no self, only a process of self-construction. 21 If I woke up in the morning and I was someone else then I would not be me. If I do not wake up as someone else then it is me. Looked at one way this is of course tautologous, but to state it is not useless.

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