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By G. B. Sansom

First released in 1928, this path-breaking paintings continues to be of value and curiosity to eastern students and linguists.

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In the same way, for the particle ni, used as a locative meaning 'in' or 'at', he used jfe, which in Chinese can be used in a similar sense, and he wrote, for instance, koko ni, 'hereat', as jfe ^, putting the characters in their Chinese order. So long as approximate Chinese equivalents could be found for such particles and suffixes in Japanese, this method was not unsatisfactory. But there were many grammatical devices in Japanese which have no parallel in Chinese. Chief among these were the inflexions of the adjective and the verb.

Again, instead of taking these two characters separately, the Japanese reader might treat them as a compound, and regard them as representing the single fjjjf i INTRODUCTION OF WRITING word 'sunahachi', which approximates in 17 meaning to 'sore ga yue ni ', much as therefore in English approximates to 'by reason of that'. Thus the two characters $C can be ' ' ^ read in at least three different ways (1) (2) (3) : according to their Chinese sound, or to the customary Japanese imitation of that sound, according to their literal meaning in Japanese, character by character supplying the necessary grammatical links, according to their meaning in composition, by using a single Japanese word of approximately the same — meaning.

In a modern dictionary of Chinese characters as used by Japanese, we find under the the following common readings of that character heading fail. ^ & : HISTORICAL JAPANESE GRAMMAR 30 coins (Chinese sen, Japanese zeni) and possibly the horse (Chinese ma, Japanese uma). Here we have examples of Chinese words which were fully naturalized. § ron gfo 'an argument', which were taken over with only such change in pronunciation 1 as was necessitated by the difference between Chinese and Japanese sounds.

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