By N B Davies; J R Krebs; Stuart A West
Traditional choice, ecology and behavior -- checking out hypotheses in behavioural ecology -- monetary judgements and the person -- Predators as opposed to prey: evolutionary fingers races -- Competing for assets -- dwelling in teams -- Sexual choice, sperm pageant and sexual clash -- Parental care and kinfolk conflicts -- Mating platforms -- intercourse allocation -- Social behaviours: altruism to spite -- Cooperation -- Altruism and clash within the social bugs -- verbal exchange and signs -- end
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Extra info for An introduction to behavioural ecology
Reeve and Sherman (1993) provide a lucid discussion of the distinctions between Tinbergen’s four questions and the inter-relationships between them. Scott-Phillips et al. (2011) discuss the distinction between proximate and ultimate questions about human behaviour. Robinson et al (2008) review genes and social behaviour. Pulido (2007) reviews the genetics and evolution of bird migration. Godfray et al. (1991) review clutch size. Both and Visser (2001) show how migrant birds, which breed in northern Europe, may be constrained in their responses to advanced springs on the breeding grounds due to climate change, because their migration from African winter quarters is triggered by day-length variation on the wintering grounds.
Because the females are dispersed, the males are also dispersed and the commonest mating system is for a pair to occupy a territory together. At the other extreme, the largest species eat poor quality food in bulk and graze less selectively on the plains. It is not economical to defend such food supplies and these species wander in herds, following the rains and fresh grazing. In these large herds there is potential for the strongest males to monopolize several females by defence of a harem or a dominance hierarchy of mating rights.
For morphological traits, fossils can be useful but behavioural traits rarely leave a fossil record. We have, therefore, to make an educated guess about ancestral states. Again, various statistical methods are available. The simplest method is parsimony: assign ancestral states to minimize the number of evolutionary changes in the tree from ancestral to extant species. More complex methods are maximum likelihood and Bayesian statistics, which consider which are the most likely ancestral states among various possibilities.