By Susan T. Fiske
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Extra resources for Annual Review of Psychology, Vol 56 2005
In this figure, the points plot the frequency with which each possible variability score was observed Figure 2 Dots are used to plot the distribution of variability scores obtained from a single animal in the Machado (1989) paper. The solid line indicates the frequency distribution that would be expected from a perfectly indeterminate process. sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) Annu. Rev. Psychol. 56:25-56. org by Ball State University on 01/05/09. For personal use only. INDETERMINATE BEHAVIOR P1: IKH 39 during a reinforcement contingency that maximized indeterminate behavior.
Sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) Annu. Rev. Psychol. 56:25-56. org by Ball State University on 01/05/09. For personal use only. INDETERMINATE BEHAVIOR P1: IKH 37 Figure 1 Mean interresponse times (IRTs) from two replications of three experimental conditions for a single pigeon (Blough 1966). The graph plots the frequency of each IRT in half-second bins. A fully indeterminate process would produce points that fall along straight lines in this space. ) apparently random frequency distribution. In one important and well-controlled study, Page & Neuringer (1985) employed a strategy of this type to examine indeterminacy in behavior and to see whether the ability of pigeons to produce random sequences depended specifically upon whether or not they were reinforced for apparent randomness.
Org by Ball State University on 01/05/09. For personal use only. INDETERMINATE BEHAVIOR P1: IKH 27 heads-up. As Popper points out, this is not only an unverifiable theoretical claim, but also an untestable one; my assertion predicts all possible empirical outcomes and is thus unfalsifiable. Even more importantly, my theoretical claim predicts as an experimental result all possible finite series of coin flips that could ever be observed. If the coin is equally likely to land heads-up and tails-up, then any specific series of heads and tails is equally likely, whether that be six heads in a row or six flips that alternate between heads and tails.