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By Robert W. Mitchell, Nicholas S. Thompson, H. Lyn Miles

Humans normally imagine that animals are psychologically like themselves (anthropomorphism), and describe what animals do in narratives (anecdotes) that help those mental interpretations. this can be the 1st ebook to judge the importance and usability of the practices of anthropomorphism and anecdotalism for figuring out animals. varied views are provided in considerate, severe essays via historians, philosophers, anthropologists, psychologists, behaviorists, biologists, primatologists, and ethologists. the character of anthropomorphism and anecdotal research is tested; social, cultural, and ancient attitudes towards them are offered; and clinical attitudes are appraised. Authors offer interesting in-depth descriptions and analyses of various species of animals, together with octopi, nice apes, monkeys, canines, sea lions, and, in fact, people. matters approximately, and suggestions for, reviews of a number of mental points of animals are mentioned, together with psychological country attribution, intentionality, cognition, attention, self-consciousness, and language.

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Sample text

But when applied metaphorically to clouds, we no longer use them as signs. The things called by the literal word "cotton wool" have the striking characteristics and a lot more, whereas the things called by the metaphor have only the striking characteristics. This also holds when no words used literally appear in the metaphor, for example, "a mantle of sorrow'' (Crider & Cirillo, 1992, p. 181). A metaphor is a word for one sort of thing applied to a different sort of thing. A metaphorical word has a certain semantic relation to the literal meaning of that word and to the other literal words in a sentence.

If Father Adam and Mother Eve had irretrievably vanished from a Darwinian universe, and we were brought face to face with our grandfather the baboon, at least we could still cling to Cousin Rover. <><><><><><><><><><><><> In the late 1870s, a few years after the publication of The Descent of Man and as Darwin neared the end of his life, the crucial topic of mental evolution was taken up by his much younger colleague, G. J. Romanes, to whom Darwin gave all his own notes on the subject (E. Romanes, 1908, pp.

Such terms would earlier have been called merely heuristically useful metaphors, variously labeled "generic anthropomorphism" (Asquith, 1984), "critical anthropomorphism" (Burghardt, 1985a), or "mock anthropomorphism" (Kennedy, 1992), or a form of catachresis, filling a gap in our vocabulary (Boyd, 1979). Although these terms are carefully defined in scientific reports, this change to a literal use of mentalistic terms appears to reflect an increasing acceptance or a phase of acceptance of animal cognition (Asquith, 1984).

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