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By Russell H. Tuttle

The 1st significant and so much entire synthesis of effects from ecological, naturalistic behavioral, comparative mental, and humanoid language examine on apes because the vintage paintings, the nice Apes, by way of Robert M. and Ada Yerkes in 1929. in accordance with greater than 1,360 references from clinical journals, monographs, symposium volumes, and different public resources, the e-book encompasses a wealth of present info at the taxonomy, ecology, postural and locomotive habit, typical communications, and social habit of the apes. Topical discussions within the e-book are prepared to teach the level of growth, together with the advance of recent study questions, and how our perspectives of apes have replaced as new details has turn into on hand due to the fact 1929.

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They have very large jaws and teeth and exceptionally long palates and toothrows (Groves, 1970c). Their hair is black, quite long and fine. In adult males, the "saddle" is restricted to the back. The vertebral borders of their shoulder blades are sinuous. Their arms are short and their long great toes seem to be more aligned with the lateral 4 toes than is the case in the other gorillas (Schultz, 1934; Groves, 1970c). The largest subspecies is probably the eastern lowland or Grauer's gorilla, Pan gorilla graueri.

Five Sumatran female orangutans weighed between 74 and 98 lb [3444 kg; x == 82 lb (37 kg)] and 10 Bornean females weighed between 72 and 100 lb [33-45 kg; x == 82 lb (37 kg)] (Eckhardt, 19795a). Schultz (1956, p. Terminology, Taxonomy, Distribution, and Phylogeny 13 895) also calculated that male orangutans are on average twice as heavy as females. Thus, Pongo pygmaeus is quite sexually dimorphic in body size. MacKinnon (1975) characterized adult Bornean orangutans as generally exhibiting somewhat darker body hair (chocolate or maroon); more glabrous gular air sacs; broader and less hairy faces, with prominent round muzzles; less plantigrade feet; and a more rotund body build than Sumatran orangutans.

Bonobos sport long thick side-whiskers and have long fine body hair (Figure 6). Some adults retain the infantile white perianal tuft of hair. Unlike common chimpanzees and some humans, they appear to escape the distinguishing devastation of alopecia. Their ears are smaller than those of common chimpanzees, falling more into the size range of humans and gorillas (Coolidge, 1933). Adults of both sexes have gracile crania, with minor development of bony superstructures, like the supraorbital ridges.

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