By Lewis Stevens
The biology of birds is varied and often differs considerably from that of alternative vertebrates. Many birds migrate or fly at excessive altitudes, whereas egg-laying and feather creation locations excessive calls for on nutrient uptake and garage. This ebook is the one complete and updated survey of avian biochemistry and molecular biology to be had. It emphasises the similarities and transformations among birds and different vertebrates, focusing on new advancements. the 1st part bargains with protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, its hormonal regulate and the variations that ensue in birds. the second one covers the avian genome, gene expression, and avian immunology. progress and embryological improvement also are mentioned. Avian Biochemistry and Molecular Biology may be of curiosity to all these engaged on birds, in particular postgraduate scholars and researchers.
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Extra resources for Avian Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
All have pronounced physiological effects at nanogram concentrations on different tissues. Prostaglandins are released from cells and have physiological effects on the secreting cells themselves, or on adjacent cells. These are known as autocrine and paracrine secretions, respectively, and they may be compared to normal endocrine secretions that are circulated via the bloodstream. The requirement for linoleic acid is most pronounced during rapid growth and during egg formation. Deficiency symptoms in the domestic fowl include retarded growth, increased water consumption, retarded sexual development, decreased egg size and changes in the egg-yolk fatty acid composition.
5. 6. Water-soluble vitamins in avian species Vitamin Deficiency symptoms Thiamin (BJ Polyneuritis Riboflavin (B2) Pyridoxal (B6) Nicotinamide (B7) Pantothenic acid Biotin Folic acid Cyanocobalamin (B12) Choline Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) Function Thiamin diphosphate is a cofactor for oxidative decarboxylation and other reactions Growth retardation, curled toe paralysis in chicks FAD and FMN are cofactors for several dehydrogenases Growth retardation Pyridoxal phosphate is a cofactor for transaminations and deaminations Dermatitis, poor feathering, bowing of legs Precursor of NAD and NADP Reduced growth, dermatitis, reduced egg production Precursor of CoA, which is a cofactor for acylation reactions and hatchability Cofactor for carboxylases Similar to pantothenic acid Cofactor for C1 metabolism Macrocytic anaemia, poor growth and feathering Cofactor for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and Slow growth, reduced hatchability other alkylation reactions Poor growth, perosis Precursor of phospholipids and acetyl choline Only required by some avian species Hydroxylation of proline residues in collagen and fish tissues, the liver being a particularly good source.
1986). Upon fasting, the level of particulate glucokinase falls, and this may partially account for why avian blood glucose does not readily fall upon starvation, since high glucokinase activity might otherwise channel some of the blood glucose into the liver. Detailed structural studies have so far only been carried out on mammalian and yeast glucokinases. 1. 3 (range) Compiled from: Sarkar (1977); Veiga et al. (1978); Kaneko (1980); Didier et al. (1981); Marsh & Dawson (1982); McMurthy, Rosebrough & Steele (1987); Yorita et al.