By Thomas F. Cash PhD, Thomas Pruzinsky Phd
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Additional info for Body image : a handbook of theory, research, and clinical practice
Behavioral genetic researchers have made use of twin and adoption study designs to demonstrate robust effects of genetic factors on body image problems. Molecular geneticists have begun to study particular genes that may influence body image disturbances. Finally, advances in neuroimaging techniques have allowed for the exploration of specific areas of the brain that may be implicated in body image problems. Twin and Adoption Studies of Body Image Twin and adoption studies are powerful tools for investigating genetic influences on a trait or disorder.
76) Wade et al. 00 Wade et al. 44 Wade et al. 53 Female preadolescents Klump, Burt, et al. 44) Klump et al. 47 Males Baker et al. 43) Keski-Rahkonen et al. 00 Wade et al. 25 Figure Rating Scale—Current Body Size Figure Rating Scale—Desired Body Size Note. EDI, Eating Disorder Inventory; MEBS, Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey; EDEQ, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire; EDE, Eating Disorder Examination. When available, confidence intervals are printed in parentheses following the heritability estimates.
Evidence on Mediating Mechanisms The existence of particular societal ideals does not by definition mean that there will be negative psychological consequences for people who do not meet these ideals. Several mediating mechanisms have been proposed by which societal messages from parents, peers, and the media lead to body 2. Sociocultural Perspectives on Body Image 17 dissatisfaction. , acceptance and adoption of societal ideals as goals for oneself) as the major mediating mechanism. More recently, this has been supplemented by the process of social comparison, whereby women compare their appearance with the idealized media images and almost invariably find themselves lacking.