By Terry Gourvish
Supplying clean insights into the interplay among politics and enterprise in twentieth-century Europe, this booklet shows the complexity of the relationship--particularly within the setting of the Twenties and 1930s--when fascism was once at its top. distinct contributions also are made concerning the contrasting behaviors of businessmen and associations in accordance with the good melancholy; the increase of Hitler and the "Jewish question"; the function of commercial networks within the politics of Belgium and Greece; and the business-politics measurement within the formation of the Irish Republic.
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Extra info for Business and Politics in Europe, 1900-1970: Essays in Honour of Alice Teichova
Included in the theoretical underpinnings of this approach was the socalled ‘wage solidarity’ principle. It was intended to encourage industrial rationalisation and restructuring, and thus to accelerate economic growth without inflation. This ‘Rehn–Meidner’ wage theory – named after Gosta ¨ Rehn and Rudolf Meidner, two eminent LO economists of the period – nicely encompasses the growth decades’ unbridled faith in the possibilities of social engineering. Indeed, in many important regards, developments during the following decades accorded well with the model’s recommendations.
The government had vastly increased its power and had invited business and the unions to participate in the multitude of boards and commissions created to deal with problems of supply and rationing. Post-war developments strengthened this tendency towards corporatism. The various interest organisations, especially SAF and LO, came to be represented on most national and local government agencies, as well as on all-important parliamentary committees. This was the case with the universities, environmental agencies, radio and TV, as well as the ever more powerful Labour Market Administration (AMS).
19 Developments shifted away from reliance on the market. In a number of countries, including the United States and Sweden, agriculture was walled off from market forces, thus becoming a protected economic sector. Tariffs were introduced and protectionism spread. After the international financial crisis, and the resulting collapse of the gold standard in 1931, free international capital movements practically ceased. Most countries introduced foreign exchange controls of some sort. Planning was to replace ‘the blind market’.