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By William O'Donohue

​The motivation for this quantity is straightforward. For numerous purposes, medical psychologists have lengthy proven substantial curiosity within the philosophy of technological know-how. while logical positivism won forex within the Nineteen Thirties, psychologists have been one of the such a lot avid readers of what those philosophers needed to say approximately technological know-how. a part of the critique of Skinner’s radical behaviorism and therefore habit remedy was once that it depended on, and therefore was once logically depending on, the reality of logical positivism—a declare decisively refuted either traditionally and logically via L.D. Smith (1986) in his very important Behaviorism and Logical Positivism: A Reassessment of the Alliance. ​

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3 Epistemology and Logical Positivism 30 Responding to the Gettier counterexamples has consumed a lot of time and energy in contemporary epistemology. One response that has a fair number of adherents is that the Gettier counterexamples demonstrate a need for a fourth condition for knowledge. One such proposed condition is the following: There is no true proposition Q such that if Q were added to the individual’s beliefs then he would no longer be justified in believing p. Qs are known as “defeaters,” and such analyses have come to be called defeasibility analyses.

How are deterministic assumptions that often underlie science consistent with ethical assumptions in human free will and choice? Kant stated that “ought implies can”—that to claim that someone morally ought to do something implies that they have a choice and at least is able to do this. For example, the ethical claim “You morally ought to learn four foreign languages in one day” is regarded as false simply because this cannot be accomplished. But science often assumes determinism (see for example Skinner 2002).

Are these meaningful according to the logical positivist? Are these analytic statements or verifiable by empirical observations? E. Moore’s the naturalistic fallacy. The Is/Ought Distinction Hume’s stated (1737): In every system of morality, which I have hitherto met with, I have always remarked, that the author proceeds for some time in the ordinary ways of reasoning, and establishes the being of a God, or makes observations concerning human affairs; when all of a sudden I am surprised to find, that instead of the usual copulations of propositions, is, and is not, I meet with no proposition that is not connected with an ought, or an ought not.

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