By Kurt Jensen
This e-book offers a coherent description of the theoretical and functional aspects
of colored Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPN). It exhibits how CP-nets were developed
- from being a promising theoretical version to being a full-fledged language
for the layout, specification, simulation, validation and implementation of
large software program structures (and different platforms within which people and/or computers
communicate via a few roughly formal rules). The book
contains the formal definition of CP-nets and the mathematical thought behind
their research equipment. even if, it's been the goal to put in writing the ebook in
such a fashion that it additionally turns into beautiful to readers who're extra in
applications than the underlying arithmetic. which means a wide a part of the
book is written in a method that is in the direction of an engineering textbook (or a users'
manual) than it's to a standard textbook in theoretical machine technological know-how. The book
consists of 3 separate volumes.
The first quantity defines the internet version (i.e., hierarchical CP-nets) and the
basic techniques (e.g., the various behavioural homes resembling deadlocks, fairness
and domestic markings). It supplies an in depth presentation of many smaIl examples
and a short review of a few business purposes. It introduces the formal
analysis equipment. FinaIly, it features a description of a collection of CPN tools
which aid the sensible use of CP-nets. lots of the fabric during this quantity is
application orientated. the aim of the quantity is to educate the reader how to
construct CPN types and the way to examine those by way of simulation.
The moment quantity incorporates a distinctive presentation of the speculation in the back of the
formal research equipment - specifically incidence graphs with equivalence
classes and place/transition invariants. It additionally describes how those research methods
are supported by way of desktop instruments. elements of this quantity are quite theoretical
while different components are program orientated. the aim of the amount is to teach
the reader the right way to use the formal research tools. it will no longer unavoidably require
a deep knowing of the underlying mathematical thought (although such
knowledge will in fact be a help).
The 3rd quantity features a designated description of a variety of industrial
applications. the aim is to record crucial principles and experiences
from the initiatives - in a manner that's important for readers who don't yet
have own adventure with the development and research of huge CPN diagrams.
Another function is to illustrate the feasibility of utilizing CP-nets and the
CPN instruments for such tasks.
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Extra info for Coloured Petri Nets: Basic Concepts, Analysis Methods and Practical Use
It should be remarked that the Rev function is rather inefficient because its execution time grows as the square of the length of the argument. It is also possible in CPN ML (of course) to make a more efficient version of Rev, where the execution time grows linearly. Above we have only specified the types of the function arguments. The types of the function results will then be automatically calculated by the CPN ML compiler. However, it is also possible to specify the result type, and it will then be checked that the result type is consistent with the declaration: fun Fac(n:AA):AA = ifn>l then n*Fac(n-l) else 1 fun Even(n:AA):bool = «n mod 2) = 0) fun Fl(x:U):E ms = case x ofp=> 2'e I q => l'e fun Div(n:AA, O:AA):AA = 0 I Div(n,m) = n div m fun Rev(:PP):PP =  I Rev(head::tail) = Rev(tai1)l\"[head].
It also means that it is less important to be precise about the mechanism by Fig. 16. 5 Construction of CPN Models 35 which we distinguish between different phones. These details will be added later - when we combine the net of Fig. 16 with other nets representing other kinds of processes. When the modelled process is sequential the net will be a state machine. This means that each transition removes exactly one token (from the place of the predecessor state) and adds one token (to the place of the successor state).
The situation is analogous to programming, and we can actually learn much by considering the qualities which a readable program should possess: • • • • mnemonic names, consistent and transparent indentation strategy, comments, consistency. The intention ofthis section is to give a few guidelines, which - although primitive and sometimes straightforward - may help an inexperienced modeller to create better CP-nets. The guidelines will lead to more readable CP-nets. However, it is also important that each group of modellers develops their own style and standards.