By University of Cambridge. Institute of Criminology
Neighborhood consequences are punishments that, within the courts' sentencing tariff, come among imprisonment and fines. They comprise digital tagging, supervised unpaid paintings, and obligatory participation via offenders in remedy programmes. contemporary years have visible many alterations in England within the box of group consequences. those have incorporated the quick improvement of authorised offending behaviour programmes, and a few new court docket orders similar to the Referral Order for juveniles, in response to the foundations of restorative justice. Organisationally, too, the 12 months 2001 sees a big swap with the identify. learn more... conceal; Copyright web page; Contents; 1 creation: the modern scene for group consequences; 2 neighborhood consequences in ancient point of view; three group consequences within the context of latest social switch; four past cognitive-behaviourism? Reflections at the effectiveness literature; five Compliance and neighborhood consequences; 6 Making 'What Works' paintings: demanding situations within the supply of neighborhood consequences; 7 responsibility within the supply of group consequences: to whom, for what, and why?; eight responsibility: distinction and variety within the supply of neighborhood consequences. nine know-how and the way forward for neighborhood penalties10 group consequences and social intergration: 'community as resolution and as challenge; eleven What destiny for 'public safeguard' and 'restorative justice' in a process of group penalties?; 12 Concluding reflections; Appendix: Key conclusions; Index
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Additional info for Community penalties: change and challenges
Reiner (eds) Criminal Justice: Theory and Practice. British Criminology Conference 1991 selected papers, vol. 2. London: British Society of Criminology/ISTD. Nellis, M. (1999) ‘Towards the Field of Corrections: Modernising the Probation Service in the 1990s’, Social Policy and Administration, 33 (3), 302–323. Nellis, M. (2000) ‘Renaming Probation’, Probation Journal, 47 (1), 39–44. Nellis, M. R. (2000) ‘Accepting the Tag: Probation Officers and Home Detention Curfew’, Vista, 6 (1), 68–80. Page, M.
The belated government response to the Younger Report (Home Office 1978) used the fact that in the intervening period the IMPACT study (Folkard et al 1976) had cast doubt on the likely effectiveness of intensive supervision, so, mostly to the delight of the Probation Service, the proposal was dropped. The confident belief of so many probation champions in this period that when they rejected arguments to toughen-up community supervision they necessarily occupied the moral high ground, and thus were engaging in ‘progressive’ practice, was mistaken.
So strong was commitment among practitioners to the idea of probation as a form of conditional liberty and a means of helping that Bullock and Tildesley (1984), court clerks who researched probation officer attitudes in this period, drew dismaying conclusions about the potential of the Service to work constructively and consistently for the reduced use of imprisonment. The Home Office’s (1984c) own attempt to persuade local services to adopt more intensive forms of supervision – the Statement of National Objectives and Priorities (SNOP) – met with mixed-to-poor results; some local services were acquiescent, but most resisted it (Lloyd 1985).