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By Gwen Robinson, Fergus McNeill

In Community Punishment: eu views, the authors position punishment in the neighborhood lower than the highlight via exploring the origins, evolution and variations of supervision in eleven ecu jurisdictions. for many humans, punishment within the legal justice process is synonymous with imprisonment. but, either in Europe and within the united states, the numbers of individuals lower than a few kind of penal supervision in the neighborhood a ways exceeds the numbers in legal, and lots of prisoners are published lower than supervision. Written and edited by way of prime students within the box, this assortment advances the sociology of punishment through illuminating the ignored yet the most important phenomenon of ‘mass supervision’.

As good as placing criminological and penological theories to the try in an exam in their skill to give an explanation for the evolution of punishment beyond the prison, and throughout varied states, the individuals to this quantity additionally check the appropriateness of the time period ‘community punishment’ in numerous elements of Europe. accomplishing a significant exploration of universal issues and variations within the jurisdictions incorporated within the assortment, the authors pass directly to study how ‘community punishment’ got here into being of their jurisdiction and the way its institutional varieties and practices were legitimated and re-legitimated in keeping with transferring social, cultural and political contexts.

This booklet is key studying for lecturers and scholars desirous about the examine of either group punishment and comparative penology, yet can be of serious curiosity to felony justice policymakers, managers and practitioners.

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Work penalties can range between 20 and 300 hours (600 hours for recidivists), and the defendant (or his/her lawyer) has to give his/her consent during the court hearing. 6 This possibility to safeguard social and judicial rehabilitation7 was and still is a strong impetus for defendants and lawyers to plead for the work penalty and a key success factor in its swift acceptance. Belgium 17 Upgrading the legal status of the work penalty from a condition of probation to an autonomous main penalty also initiated a noteworthy change in judges’ sentencing behaviour.

Today, the concept itself is hardly contested as a way of describing the field, albeit that the origins of ‘probation’ lie in ideas about the provision of constructive alternatives to punishment, and at least some practitioners in the field would seek to minimise their role in the delivery of ‘punishment’ (understood as something negative or painful). This chapter begins by considering the foundations of community punishment in England and Wales, before moving on to analyse its evolution in the twentieth century.

Cavadino, M. and Dignan, J. (2006) Penal Systems: A Comparative Approach. London: Sage. Christie, N. (1977) ‘Conflicts as property’, British Journal of Criminology, 17: 1–15. Council of Europe (1992) Recommendation No. R (92) 16 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the European Rules on Community Sanctions and Measures. Downes, D. (1988) Contrasts in Tolerance. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Feeley, M. and Simon, J. (1992) ‘The new penology: notes on the emerging strategy of corrections and its implications’, Criminology, 30: 449–74.

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