By Robert M. Savage MD FACC, Solomon Aronson MD FACC FCCP FAHA FAS, James D. Thomas MD, Jack S. Shanewise MD, Stanton K. Shernan MD
Written via greater than a hundred the world over well-known specialists, this quantity is the 1st definitive and complete text/reference on intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. It positive factors 1,000 full-color echocardiograms and covers each point of intraoperative TEE, from physics and ''knobology,'' to precise reviews of cardiac valves and arteries, to using TEE in cardiac and noncardiac surgeries.
Major sections disguise ideas of echocardiography, intraoperative exam, serious care, coronary artery sickness, valvular middle illness, thoracic aortic disorder, congestive center failure, interventional cardiovascular medication, and noncardiac surgical procedure. The textual content specializes in makes use of of TEE in surgical decision-making—preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative—and contains particular medical recommendations.
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Additional info for Comprehensive textbook of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography
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Color Doppler Echocardiography Color flow Doppler is based on pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler in that multiple sample volumes are evaluated along each individual sampling line. 22. Continuous-wave versus Pulsed-wave Doppler. Because of the limited sampling interval (pulse repetition frequency) pulsed-wave Doppler can only detect velocities up to a certain magnitude before they wrap around and appear to be coming from the opposite direction. In contrast, continuous-wave Doppler, with its continuous sampling, is able to resolve velocities that are arbitrarily high, though at the cost of range resolution.
In general, the color gain should be advanced until color pixels just begin to appear within the tissue, and then reduced slightly to eliminate these. Output power has a similar effect on jet size, and should generally be set at levels that are well within the FDA standards for output power. 27 demonstrates the impact of pulse repetition frequency or scale on the size of the jet. For color Doppler, there is a finite number of velocity bins that are represented on the screen, typically about 16 forward and 16 backward.