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By Marc Howard Ross

Ethnic clash frequently specializes in culturally charged symbols and rituals that evoke robust feelings from both sides. Marc Howard Ross examines battles over different cultural expressions, together with Islamic headscarves in France, parades in Northern eire, holy websites in Jerusalem and accomplice flags within the American South to suggest a psychocultural framework for figuring out ethnic clash, in addition to limitations to, and possibilities for, its mitigation. His research explores how tradition frames pursuits, constructions demand-making and shapes how rivals can locate universal flooring to supply confident results to long term disputes. He specializes in individuals' debts of clash to spot emotionally major concerns, and the facility of cultural expressions to hyperlink contributors to bigger identities and form motion. Ross exhibits that, opposite to well known trust, tradition doesn't inevitably exacerbate clash; really, the built nature of psychocultural narratives can facilitate profitable clash mitigation in the course of the improvement of extra inclusive narratives and identities.

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While all groups are able to define outside enemies in cultural terms, all cultural traditions also contain core images of peace and peacemaking, which can serve deescalation and reconciliation (Gopin 2000). As a result, conflict articulated around cultural issues offers an opportunity to reduce the intense emotions associated with contested identities and can serve as a powerful mechanism to bring former opponents into new institutional arrangements. For example, in the American South, conflicts over the Confederate battle flag and civil war monuments have often been harsh and unyielding.

12 All but the most hardline Catalans are more or less satisfied with the arrangements and despite tensions at several points in the past twenty-five years, there has been no violence. Barcelona has prospered both economically and culturally and it is referred to as one of the four motors of southern Europe. Nonetheless, since 1980 the relationship between the center-right Catalan government and Madrid has sometimes been complicated. At times, both the right and the left in Madrid have found the Catalans insufficiently attentive to the needs of Spain as a whole and complain that Catalans look north toward Europe too much and south too little.

Psychocultural narratives are invoked in psychocultural dramas, which are conflicts between groups over competing, and apparently irresolvable, claims that engage the central elements of each group’s historical experience and their identity and invoke suspicions and fears of the opponent (Ross 2001). Psychocultural dramas are polarizing events about non-negotiable cultural claims, threats, and/or rights that become important because of their connections to group narratives and core metaphors central to a group’s identity – precisely the kinds of events in 25 Cultural Contestation in Ethnic Conflict which cultural expressions play a leading role.

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